Neurocirurgia: O cérebro em “tempo real”

O trabalho dos neurocirurgiões está cheio de desafios, como explica o neurocirurgião Adam Szolna, do hospital Negrín, em Las Palmas, Espanha:

“Há uma zona, entre o tumor e o cérebro, onde se infiltram as células do tumor e é, a partir daí, que temos de decidir se o podemos ressecar ou não. O tecido cerebral não se regenera, por isso qualquer dano será irreversível.”

Engenheiros de telecomunicações foram, excepcionalmente, convidados a assistir à cirurgia. Estão a testar um protótipo de uma câmara hiperespectral, criada para ajudar os neurocirurgiões a ver o que, com outras tecnologias, não se podia ver. Himar A. Fabelo, engenheiro de telecomunicações, da Universidade de Las Palmas, na Grã Canária, explica o resultado deste sistema inovador:

“Distinguimos, claramente, as zonas tumorais, aqui a vermelho, das áreas sãs, as verdes. Também podemos ajudar a diferenciar, por exemplo, as veias, que estão aqui a azul.”

Uma ajuda preciosa já que, muitas vezes, os neurocirurgiões, se vêm obrigados a confiar em dados incompletos ou imprecisos, obtidos através de outras técnicas como a ressonância magnética ou a tomografia computadorizada:

“Baseamo-nos nos exames pré-operatórios, mas quando chegamos à operação as dimensões podem ter mudado, pode provocar-se um deslocamento dos tecidos.
Graças ao registo, em tempo real, podemos observar onde está localizado, de facto, o tecido tumoral”, adianta o neurocirurgião Adam Szolna.

Mas onde e como foi desenvolvida esta tecnologia?

As câmaras hiperespectrais foram criadas por cientistas de um projeto europeu de investigação. Enquanto uma câmara convencional capta imagens em três canais de cor: vermelho, verde e azul. A hiperespectral capta dados de um número muito maior de bandas espetrais. Gustavo Marrero Callicó, engenheiro de telecomunicações da Universidade de Las Palmas, e coordenador do projeto, refere as vantagens:

“É uma técnica não invasiva, não é preciso injetar nenhum tipo de contraste. É uma técnica não ionizante que não altera as características do tecido e fornece muita informação ao cirurgião, através de algoritmos matemáticos mais complexos, praticamente em tempo real, durante a cirurgia.”

“Em tempo real” é a questão-chave. Os cientistas têm como objetivo processar as imagens em menos de 1 ou 2 minutos. Eduardo Juárez, outro engenheiro de telecomunicações, mas da Universidade Politécnica de Madrid, explica como funciona o sistema:

“Trabalhamos com máquinas onde os processadores se agrupam para poderem especializar-se e desempenhar funções muito concretas, processando os algoritmos que detetam que tecido, que parte de um tecido, tem cancro e que parte não tem.”

Os cientistas esperam que a tecnologia esteja finalizada em cerca de 2 anos. Espera-se que chegue ao mercado, depois dos longos e complexos testes clínicos dentro de, aproximadamente, 5 anos. Mas começa já a pensar-se em como melhorar este sistema, como explica o Dr. Adam Szolna:

“No futuro, esperamos que se possam criar câmaras em miniatura e incorporá-las no microscópio, que vamos utilizar de seguida. Para ver a imagem verdadeira. Ver, em tempo real, com a câmara hiperespectral, o cérebro e onde se localiza a lesão.”

O engenheiro Gustavo Marrero Callicó conclui:

“O passo seguinte passa por tentarmos chegar a outro tipo de tumores, noutros órgãos, provavelmente pulmões, mama, cólon para, quem sabe, iniciar-se uma nova área na medicina, a que podemos chamar medicina hiperespectral.”

Fonte: Euronews

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